Pengaruh pola ransum terhadap pertumbuhan ayam kampung yang diseleksi untuk mengurangi sifat mengera

Oleh tetty Selasa, 07-Februari-2006, 11:54:21

Sofyan Iskandar dan Desmayati Zainuddin (2004). Pengaruh pola ransum terhadap pertumbuhan ayam kampung yang diseleksi untuk mengurangi sifat mengeram = The Effect of dietary regimes on the growth of Kampung chicken selected for reduced broodiness. Dalam: Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner Iptek sebagai motor penggerak pembangunan sistem dan usaha agribisnis peternakan Bogor 4-5 Agustus 2004. Bogor: Puslitbang Peternakan. Buku 2.Hal.527-534.

ABSTRAK INDONESIA: Sebanyak 370 anak ayam umur sehari (F6) dari induk ayam kampung hasil seleksi (Generasi ke 5) di Balai Penelitian Ternak dan 200 anak ayam umur sehari dari tetua kontrol populasi (KP) yang diperoleh dari 10 kali penetasan dialokasikan pada satu rancangan percobaan 2 galur (F6 dan KP) x 2 pola ransum (Pola 1 dan 2) x 10 ulangan (penetasan) dengan masing-masing ulangan berisi 10 ekor anak ayam umur sehari (jantan betina dicampur), dipelihara dalam kandang koloni kawat dalam bangunan tertutup cukup ventilasi, penghangat dan penerangan sampai umur 10 minggu. Pada umur tersebut ayam-ayam betina muda dipisahkan dari jantannya dan ditempatkan dalam kandang batere dalam bangunan berdinding kawat. Pola ransum 1 terdiri dari ransum berprotein kasar 20% (untuk umur 0-6 minggu), 17% (untuk umur 6-14 minggu) dan 14% (untuk umur 14-18 minggu), sementara itu pola ransum 2 terdiri dari ransum berprotein kasar 19 % (untuk umur 0-6 minggu), 17% (untuk 6-10 minggu), 15% (untuk 10-14 minggu) dan 13,2% (untuk umur 14-18 minggu). Kandungan energi (2850 kkal ME/kg), asam amino lysine, methionine, kalsium, fosfor, vitamin dan mineral mikro diformulasikan sama untuk semua ransum pada tingkat yang direkomendasikan uantuk tipe petelur ras ringan. Ransum dan air minum diberikan ad libitum selama masa percobaan. Pencegahan penyakit dilaksanakan sesuai dengan prosedur baku pemeliharaan ayam secara intensif. Individu ayam dan konsumsi per kelompok ulangan ditimbang dan jumlah ayam hidup dicatat mingguan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan pertumbuhan, konsumsi ransum, efisiensi penggunaan ransum (FCR) dan daya hidup kedua galur ayam (F6 versus KP) secara statistik tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05). Begitu juga dengan pengaruh pola ransum dan interaksi antara galur x ransum. Nilai rata-rata kinerja oleh karena itu merupakan nilai rata-rata secara keseluruhan (grand mean) yang dikemukakan berdasarkan urutan umur 6 dan 10 minggu (campuran jantan dan betina), 14 dan 18 minggu (ayam dara). Rata-rata bobot badan (gram/ekor) masing-masing urutan umur mencapai 169 (coefisien variation, cv 23%), 431 (cv 21%), 683 (cv 16%) dan 832 (cv 13%). Rata-rata konsumsi ransum (gram/ekor) masing-masing urutan umur mencapai 750 (cv 13 %), 1732 (cv 14%), 3016 (cv 11%) dan 4529 (cv 13%). Rata-rata FCR (gram ransum/gram pertambahan bobot badan) masing-masing urutan umur mencapai 5,53 (cv 24%), 4,36 (cv 24%), 4,72 (cv 32%) dan 5,57 (cv 19%). Rata-rata ayam hidup per 10 ekor untuk umur 6 dan 10 minggu dan per 5 ekor untuk umur 14 dan 18 minggu, masing-masing urutan umur mencapai 86% (cv 22%), 66% (cv 25%), 90% (cv 23%), 80% (cv 25%).

ENGLISH ABSTRACTS: At least 370-day-old chicks of kampung chicken selected for reduced broodiness (F6) and at least 200-day-old chicks of control population (CP) kampung chicken obtained from 10 hatches were allocated to experimental design as 2 (dietary regimes) x 2 (lines) x 10 (hatches as replication) with 10 unsexed chicks per replication. The birds were raised in wire colony cages placed in a well ventilated-concrete building up to 10 weeks of age. The females were separated from the males and kept up to 14 weeks of age in the same building then moved to individual cages in the layer house. First dietary regime consisted of 20% crude protein (cp) ration for chicks 0-6 weeks of age, followed with 17% cp for 6-14 week of age, then 14% cp ration for 14-18 weeks of age. The second regime consisted of 19% cp ration for chicks 0-6 weeks of age, followed by 17% cp for chicks 6-10 weeks of age, then 15% cp for chicks 10-14 of age, and 13.2% cp for chicks 14-18 of age. All rations contained 2850 kcal ME/kg with lysine, methionine, calsium, and phosphorus and micro minerals formulated, as recommended for light improved laying type of chicken, the same throughout the rations. Diets and water were served ad libitum. Sanitation, and diseases break prevention were carried out following intensive chicken husbandry procedures. The results showed that average bodyweight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, and number of birds survived statistically were not significantly (P>0.05) affected neither by dietary regimes nor by bird lines. There was not significant interaction between dietary regimes and bird lines. The performance of birds at 6, 10, 14, and 18 weeks of age, in term of grand means figures of the whole birds, showed that age respective bodyweights (gram/bird) were 169 (cv 23%), 431 (cv, 21%), 683 (cv 16%) and 832 (cv 13%). The age respective feed consumptions (gram/bird) were 750 (cv 13%), 1732 (cv 14%), 3016 (cv 11%) and 4529 (cv 13%). The age respective feed conversion ratios (gram feed/gram bodyweight gain) were 5.53 (cv 24%), 4.36 (cv 24%), 4.72 (cv 32%), and 5.57 (cv 19%). The number of bird survive up to 6 and 10 weeks of age (calculated per 10 birds) and up to 14 and 18 weeks of age (calculated per 5 birds) were 86% (cv 22%), 66% (cv 25%), 90% (cv 23%), and 80% (cv 25%), respectively for age 6, 10, 14 and 18 weeks.

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